Lesson 1 Basic knowledge —Pitch name and Tonic solfa—


  • Name of tone


One octave high means frequency of vibration (Hz) becoming twice. In the western musical mode, tones are made by divided 1 octave equally into 12. Piano has 12 keys (total of white keys and black keys) in 1 octave. Guitar and Bass have 12 frets in 1 octave.

Then, let’s name the tones!


Not named tones, or black keys of piano, are called with ♯ or ♭ to next tones, such as C♯ or D♭.

C, D, E… are called “Pitch names”, absolute names of tones. For your information, A is 440Hz.

  • Major scale and Tonic solfa

Next, let’s pay notice to the distances between named tones.


There are both Whole tone distance and Hlaf tone distance. Seeing the distances from C, “whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half !”. Let’s speak up it.

A tone series lining with the distance “whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half” in 1 octave, is called “Major scale”. If you keep the distance “whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half”, you can begin the major scale from another tone but C. Let’s try to begin from F.


When beginning from F, B has become B♭.

The major scale from C is called “C major scale”. The major scale from F is called “F major scale”.


We name the tones on major scale. 1st, 2nd, 3rd… are called “Tonic solfa”, Relative name of tones.

When F is 1st, A is 3rd. When C is 1st, E is 3rd.

1st is also called “root”.

  • Points

Pitch name (CDE…) and Tonic solfa (1st, 2nd, 3rd…)

Major scale and “whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half”


→Next, Lesson 2.

Posted by シロ助